Monday, February 24, 2020
My personal development plan - Coursework Example In my life, I have some innate skills that I have obtained in the course of life and which I do not struggle to develop while I am working within an organisation or for my own good. These skills help me to overcome various challenges in life and make it easy for me to implement activities in a very easy way without making any consultation from different people. For example, I have skills in communication, which I acquired through my education and a person interested in different things in the world, I have developed my ability in written and spoken Arab as well as in English. In English, I have developed the skills since birth as I am a native English speaker and can communicate to different people with ease of understanding of their language and forms of communication. In addition, I advanced my skills in English following my study at the University of Buckingham where I attained a certificate in effective communication between 2008 and 2009. This was in my attempt to enhance my com petence in the English language as a language of communication in my endeavours as I practice my skills in marketing and promotion. This was also in understanding that marketing and promotion, in which I major, needs people who are fluent in their modes of communication as one interacts with different people in the market and convincing them to purchase products. My skills in written and spoken Arabic was put in to test when I worked for Coca-Cola Company in Yemen in 2011 from June and September and during my four weeks internship in Egypt.
Friday, February 7, 2020
Inclusion Plan - Essay Example Many view this as a step towards the right direction as this has influenced the physically challenged to compete with those that are fit for opportunities in society, which is a move from the conventional discrimination. With this, the establishment of an inclusive plan that helps in the successive integration of persons with disabilities into an ordinary class has become the focus of many institutions, making them to be reputable organizations. In this regard, this essay will design an inclusion plan for a child with autism, in which its development will be in line with the suggestions made by those with autism, their families, caregivers, the public and the various interested partners in the community. Autism is a brain development disorder that develops in children before they attain the age of three characterized by challenges in social interaction, repetitive behavior and non-verbal communication. Autism is one of the disorders under the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis as in the past experts treated them as distinct subtypes. The other disorders that form the ASD umbrella are AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Syndrome, not otherwise specified. Asperger syndrome abbreviated as AS is a condition under the Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) umbrella that influences immense social interaction difficulties and non-verbal communication with those affected by the condition exhibiting repetitive behavioral patterns. AS is a contrary condition as compared to the other Pervasive developmental disorders as because of there is the retention of cognitive development and those with this condition also maintain their linguistic. In terms of costs, a household that has an autistic child spends at least sixty thousand dollars on a yearly basis in relation to the management and education of this childhood disorder in special
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Prevalence of One Party Rule in African States Essay Africa, often known as the Ã¢â¬ËDark ContinentÃ¢â¬â¢ rightfully occupies its place as the Ã¢â¬ËCradle of CivilizationÃ¢â¬â¢ as the first humans have been known to originate from this continent of diverse ethnicities, tribes and clans. Since ancient times, the very nature of African society predicated formation of kingdoms and states centered on ethnicities and clans. Later, the advent of colonialism brought to Africa new forms of governance, which included democratization, socialism, communism and dictatorships. One enduring feature of African style of governance has been the prevalence of one party rule in most African countries. This paper examines why there is such a preference for such single party model of governance in Africa. To fully examine the subject, this paper shall first provide a historical overview of the progression of styles of governance in Africa and then examine the trends in major countries that make up the African continent. The paper will argue that the intrinsic nature of the African society and the effects of colonialism predispose them to following a one party rule. Historical Overview Africa is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second largest continent both in terms of size and population and has 54 countries many of which are struggling democracies, a few communist regimes, and a number of authoritarian regimes bordering on dictatorship. Since ancient times, Africa had its indigenous systems of governance based on tribes and ethnic affinities. Africa also had great civilizations like the Egyptian civilization in 3300 B. C (Martin OMeara, 1995, p. 79). The earliest foreign influence came in 814 B. C. with the founding of Carthage in present day Tunisia under the Roman Empire which was followed by Persian domination of Egypt. In 332 B. C. , Alexander the Great replaced the Persian domination of Egypt and Roman rule continued in much of North Africa till the advent of Islam in the early 7th century (Martin OMeara, p. 99). In all these cases, the style of governance was centralized, as exercised by the emperor based in Rome or Persia through an appointed sovereign. The influence was limited mostly to North Africa, while the rest of Africa was considered too difficult to traverse due to thick jungles. Thus even in North Africa, from ancient times, the focus was on one Ã¢â¬âman rule and that more or less Ã¢â¬ËconditionedÃ¢â¬â¢ the North African people to accept models of Ã¢â¬Ëuni-powerÃ¢â¬â¢ in those times. Since the jungles were impassable and large number of tribes and ethnicities abounded, it was natural that rest of Africa had thousands of small kingdoms, states and at times independent nomadic tribes who dominated a particular territory. Each tribe had its own set of rules, customs, traditions and styles of governance, which again was predicated on the rule of one man or a tribal elder. The concept of Greek Ã¢â¬Ëcity-stateÃ¢â¬â¢ like democracy complete with a senate and an executive was non-existence. Over time, some of the tribes became more powerful and evolved into larger settled kingdoms that coalesced around similar ethnicities and language such as the Ghanaian empire that existed in 790-1076 A. D. followed by the Mali Empire from 1230 to 1600 A. D. (Martin OMeara, p. 70) The significant changes in style of governance came with the advent of colonialism. From the 18th century and by the late 19th century, most of Africa was divided up between the colonial powers; France, Britain, Portugal, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Italy and Netherlands. Under colonial rule, the African people had to undergo centralized rule of the colonial powers and the brutal suppression of any African revolt reinforced this submissiveness to a one-man rule. During the colonial period, the colonial powers brought with them their systems of governance, jurisprudence and legislation (Martin OMeara, p. 8). Colonialism lost its vigor in the early 20th century and by 1980, most ex-colonies in Africa gained independence. The former colonial powers before exiting from the continent tried to put into place systems of governance in Ã¢â¬Ëtheir own imageÃ¢â¬â¢. Thus across Africa, a variety of Ã¢â¬ËdemocraticÃ¢â¬â¢ systems took hold. Most of these Ã¢â¬Ëdemocratic systems were basically presidential forms of government, being the closest approximation to what they were used to both as per their pre-colonial experience and their colonial experience. The end of the Second World War gave rise to the Cold War and the Soviet Union tried to expand its influence in Africa also. This gave rise to numerous socialist-communist regimes in Africa that were opposed by the U. S. leading to proxy wars. Having examined the broad trends of the historical period of Africa till the advent of independence, the paper will now examine specific examples of how prevalence of one party rule exists in Africa. It is not intended to cover all 54 countries, but few sample countries that typify the various regions of Africa. For the ease of comprehension and brevity, Africa will be discussed under the heads North Africa, West Africa, East Africa, Central Africa and Southern Africa. North Africa North Africa because of its proximity to Asia had significant influence of Asian and Islamic traditions superimposed on ethnic African traditions and cultures. It is because of the spread of Islam in the 7th century, most of North Africa is Islamic. Islam, an egalitarian religion is considered as a complete body of work wherein all aspects of human life including politics and governance can be practiced through the Quran, the Holy book and the Hadith, the Islamic interpretation of Jurisprudence. Under Islamic law and Islamic political systems, an Islamic state is governed by a Caliph and where a Caliph no longer exists, then by a monarch or a ruler. Ideas such as secularism and democracy have very little congruence with the practice of political Islam. When such a system is overlaid over ancient tribal culture of a village head, it becomes natural that a state be ruled by a monarch or an authoritarian head and if not, the nearest approximation, a single grouping or party. Take for example, Egypt. Egypt, since ancient times was a land ruled by the Pharaohs, then the Persians, Greeks, Romans, Ottomans and the Arabs. In the colonial era, Egypt was ruled by Britain but the largely Islamic populace got independence from Britain in 1922 (Pateman El-Hamamsy, 2003, p. 28). Egypt was initially a constitutional monarchy and had adopted the British parliamentary system of government but constant political interference from Britain led to internal turmoil that finally resulted in a military coup in 1952 (Pateman El-Hamamsy, p. 28) in which the monarchy was overthrown and Egypt declared itself to be a Republic under General Muhammed Naquib. Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew Naguib in 1954 to become the Egyptian President. Nasser, on assuming power banned all political parties and created a one party named the Liberation Rally to run the government. This move helped him consolidate his power and rule Egypt till his death in 1970 after which he was succeeded by Anwar El-Sadat, the vice President (Pateman El-Hamamsy, p. 29). Sadat carried out political reforms and reverted to a multi-party system (Pateman El-Hamamsy, p. 31); creating one of the parties called the National Democratic Party and remained the President till he was assassinated in 1981 by a group of Egyptian army officers during an army parade (Pateman El-Hamamsy, p. 29). SadatÃ¢â¬â¢s successor, Hosni Mubarak is still in office since 1981 and is the present leader of the National Democratic Party. Though by the Egyptian constitution, multi-party system is allowed, due to sustained state patronage, the National Democratic Party is the only party which has the necessary financial and political clout to win elections. There are other smaller parties that have virtually no chance of winning a single election and till to date Egypt is essentially ruled by a single party. Libya, a British colony was declared as a monarchy under King Idris in 1951 but was overthrown by a revolution led by Colonel Muammer al-Gaddafi in 1969 (Wright, 1981, p. 130) who has ruled the country ever since. Political parties were banned by Gaddafi in 1972 and the country is ruled by the Ã¢â¬Ërevolutionary leaderÃ¢â¬â¢, Gaddafi aided by a Revolutionary Committee also called as the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Congress. Tunisia was a French protectorate that became independent in 1956 and adopted a Presidential form of government, copying the French model, except that it rapidly turned into an authoritarian police state where most Ã¢â¬ËPresidentsÃ¢â¬â¢ have been military personnel. The present incumbent, President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali is a former military officer (Perkins, 2004, p. 7). On paper, political parties are allowed but in reality, it is only the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s party, the Constitutional Democratic Rally that gets almost all the seats. The rest of the political parties are usually browbeaten into submission by the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s security system and there is virtually no free press. The farcical nature of Tunisian Ã¢â¬ËdemocracyÃ¢â¬â¢ can be gauged by the fact that in the 2009 presidential election, Ben Ali received 89. 62% votes to continue as the President (Lowe Amara, 2009, p. 1). The ancient kingdom of Morocco, a French and Spanish Protectorate gained independence in 1956 as a constitutional monarchy, a system that continues till to date. Though the King of Morocco has a prime minister, a parliament and a multi-party system, the style of governance continues to be rule by one man, the King (Forum, 2008, p. 49). West Africa In West Africa, the situation is slightly different. Here more than Islamic influence, it was the effect of local dynamics, ethnic rivalries, Christian missionaries and communist influence that has determined the preference for single party rule. Take for example Liberia, the only other country other than Ethiopia which has an American connection rather than a European past. Liberia was created through a private American enterprise to house freed African American slaves and became independent in 1847. Since, the project was American led; Liberia adopted a presidential form of system. However, the American backed Liberian elite who ruled the country came in conflict with 16 other indigenous ethnicities living in Liberia. Since the regime was thrust Ã¢â¬Ëtop downÃ¢â¬â¢ from the Americans, tensions quickly developed and a coup by a group of ethnic military soldiers led by Samuel Doe took place in 1980. Doe replaced the presidential republic with his authoritarian regime. Political parties were allowed to exist but their freedom remained curtailed by the regime which furthered the hold of its own party, the National Democratic Party of Liberia. The 1985 election results in which the opposition Liberal Action Party won were declared invalid by Doe, which led to the Liberian Civil War in 1989. Doe was killed and the power passed into the hands of Charles Taylor (Moran, 2008, p. 106), who continued his dictatorial regime which again led to another civil war in 1999 that continued up to 2003 and only came to halt with Charles Taylor being forced into exile in Nigeria. From 1847 till 2003, Liberia was ruled by the Americo-Liberian elite and their single party. Since 2003, a transitional government was put into place with international intervention, which because of corruption was dissolved and fresh presidential elections were again held in 2005 and was won by Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, the head of Unity Party who became the first woman President of an African country (Polgreen, 2005, p. 1). Nigeria got its independence from Britain in 1960 and had numerous political parties. These political parties were sharply defined along ethnic lines comprising of three main ethnicities; the Hausa, the Igbo and the Yoruba (Rotberg, 2007, p. 19). The Yoruba dominated Nigerian National Democratic Party won the elections in 1965, which led to political dissensions and instability resulting in two military coups in 1966. This did not resolve the problem as the Igbo, dominating the Eastern region of the country declared independence from Nigeria leading to the Nigerian civil war 1967-1970 that led to over a million deaths. The civil war ended but not the ethnic strife and the military continued to rule Nigeria with coups and assassination of the presidents being a regular feature. For thirty years, Nigeria continued under military rule till 1999 when it finally elected Lusegun Obasanjo, a former military dictator as its President. Obasanjo was re-elected in 2003 (Rotberg, p. 13) as the President amidst allegations of rigging. Obasanjo was replaced by Umaru YarAdua of the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Democratic Party in 2007 and on his demise now been replaced by Goodluck Jonathan (Nossiter, 2010, p. 1). So while the American model was adopted, the actual functioning of a presidential type of government has been a recent development in NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s history. At present there are two main parties in Nigeria, the ruling PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Democratic Party and the opposition All Nigeria PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Party with numerous smaller parties. What must be noted is that a democratic political system in Nigeria is still nascent and fragile and should ethnic differences arise again it will not be long that another military coup will take place in the interests of Ã¢â¬Ënational securityÃ¢â¬â¢. Angola became independent in 1975 after having been a Portuguese colony from the 16th century. Angolan independence came right in middle of the Cold War where Soviet influence in Africa was rising. The independent country was immediately plunged into a civil war between the Soviet backed Communist MPLA faction and the American backed anti-communist UNITA rebels (Sheehan, Yong, Lin, 2010, p. 38). The Angolan civil war continued for 27 years (Sheehan, Yong, Lin, p. 43) till declaration of ceasefire in 2002 by which time over 500,000 people were killed. The ideological factions had an ethnic base too wherein the MPLA comprised basically Angolans of the Kimbundu clan and the UNITA, the Ovimbundu tribe. Presently, the Communist MPLA holds power in Angola. As can be deduced, this being a communist regime with no legitimacy, the concept of political parties in a democratic system does not apply. East Africa East Africa including the Horn of Africa portrays a region of extreme instability with a few deceptively stable nations. Sudan, the first country being analyzed, after gaining independence from Egypt and Britain in 1956, was gripped by a civil war till 1973 (Barker, 2008, p. 16). This civil war was basically because of ethnic differences between the people of Northern Sudan (Islamic of Arabic lineage) and Southern Sudan (non-Islamic of non-Arab lineage). While the civil war raged, Khartoum was ruled by the Sudanese military. A ceasefire in 1973 negotiated through granting autonomy to Southern Sudan kept the peace till 1983 when the military general, and the de-facto President, Nimeiry unilaterally decided to incorporate Southern Sudan into a federation. The civil war continued (Barker, p. 18), Nimeiry was ousted in 1983 and replaced by a democratic government under Prime Minister Al Sadig Al Mahdi which was not recognized by the SudanÃ¢â¬â¢s People Liberation Army (SPLA) of Southern Sudan. Civil war continued anew. In 1989, Colonel Omar al-Bashir over threw Prime Minister Al Mahdi, abolished political parties and established an Islamic code on entire Sudan. Al-Bashir formed the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation and allied his group with National Islamic Front to consolidate Islamization of firstly, Northern Sudan and then the rest of the country. In the subsequent military action by the Sudanese army, the SPLA were defeated in Southern Sudan by 1994. Having achieved consolidation, Bashir dissolved the revolutionary council in 1993. In the 1996 election Bashir declared himself to be the only candidate eligible to run for President. All other political parties were disbanded and Bashir converted Sudan into an Islamic state with single party at its helm Ã¢â¬â the newly created National Congress Party (NCP). Meanwhile, Bashir unleashed a brutal war of suppression on the non-Arab ethnic minorities in the Darfur region using proxy militia known as the Janjaweed that has resulted in deaths of over 400,000 Darfuris (Kessler, 2005, p. 1) leading to an indictment of Al-Bashir by the International Criminal Court for war crimes and genocide. At the tip of the Horn of Africa lies the failed state of Somalia where no functional government exists. Somalia was never formally colonized by any power and had come under a variety of influences ranging from Islamic influence during the Ottoman Empire, Fascist influence under MussoliniÃ¢â¬â¢s Italy and then British military administration from 1941 that was replaced by the formation of a republic of Somalia in 1961 with a parliamentary form of government (Lewis, 2008, p. 33). This brief democratic interlude was shattered in 1969 when President Shermake was assassinated and replaced by a military government. The military created the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party in 1976 and ruled the nation till 1990. Meanwhile, various Islamic factions and clans grew in size and potency that overthrew the military government leading to a series of skirmishes through the period, 1990-1991. The long standing military dictator, Siad Barre was ousted in 1991 and President Ali Muhammed was installed, yet the civil war continued. The UN Security Council approved the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) in 1992 that has since been replaced by UNOSOM II with no success. Presently, a Transitional Federal Government (Lewis, p. x)is the internationally recognized government of Somalia whose writ does not even run through the entire city of Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia. In the dismal narrative so far, Kenya appears to be a bright democratic spark in the African continent. After achieving independence from Britain in 1963, Kenya adopted a semi-presidential form of government albeit, with the peculiar African preference for single party rule. The Kenyan constitution mandated formation of only a single party in Kenya. Governments continued to be formed under the single party system until 1992 when electoral reforms were introduced to allow a multiparty system. The elections since then have been held in generally free and fair manner. The 2007 elections were marred by allegations of rigging in which the main opposition party, the Orange Democratic Freedom accused the ruling Party of National Unity for stealing the election. In the ensuing rioting, over 1000 Kenyans lost their lives (Raghavan, 2010, p. 1) and hundreds of thousands were displaced. Peace was restored through international mediation in 2008 and the country is presently being run by a grand coalition of members of both the parties under a new constitution (Raghavan, p. 1). KenyaÃ¢â¬â¢s relative stability is attributed to the British colonial era, where unlike the rest of Africa, the colonists set up educational institutions and government infrastructure. Also, unlike the other African countries, 78% of Kenyans are Christians while 10% are Muslims, 10% indigenous and the rest 2% are Asian immigrants (CIA World Factbook, 2010, p. 1). Central Africa In Central Africa, the Republic of Congo has been in the news for decades for all the wrong reasons. Congo received independence from France in 1960 and adopted the French presidential model of governance. However, the first President, Fulbert Youlou was ousted in 1963 by a military coup, which then installed a puppet civilian government (Rorison, 2008, p. 225) and also adopted communist ideology. In 1965, the Congo republic formally joined hands with the Soviet Union, firmly coming into the soviet bloc (Rorison, p. 226). This alignment did not bring about political stability as the original French democratic influence clashed with the Ã¢â¬Ëuni-powerÃ¢â¬â¢ Soviet ideology leading to a series of coups and dictatorship under Denis Sassou. During his first spell of rule from 1979 to 1992, Sassou ruled Congo under a single party rule of the Congolese Labor Party (PCT) (Rorison, p. 227). When external pressures grew strong, he introduced multiparty system in 1990 and was defeated in the 1992 Presidential election. SassouÃ¢â¬â¢s ouster led to a civil war between the supporters of Sassou and his competitor Pascal Lissouba. Sassou, a former colonel won the civil war and proclaimed himself as the President in 1997. In 2009, Sassou was sworn in for another seven-year period (Amnesty International, 2010, p. 1). In CongoÃ¢â¬â¢s case too, for most of its independent history, the country has been ruled by a single party and now despite a multi-party Ã¢â¬ËdemocracyÃ¢â¬â¢ in place, the original political party, the PCT continues to rule the country. Southern Africa In Southern Africa, any discussion regarding Africa would remain incomplete without illustrating the case of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe, originally Rhodesia became independent after a violent struggle with the British in 1980. Throughout the period, 1965-1979, the country was engulfed in a civil war between British government forces and the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) led by Robert Mugabe and the Zimbabwe African PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Union (ZAPU) led by Joshua Nkomo as also a number of smaller splinter groups (Raftopoulos Mlambo, 2009, pp. 141-165). In the 1980 elections, Robert Mugabe won by a wide margin but fighting with opposing parties and groups continued. The two main parties the ZANU and ZAPU fought bitterly until 1988 when ceasefire was declared and the two parties merged into ZANU-PF thus starting ZimbabweÃ¢â¬â¢s slide into single party dominated system (Raftopoulos Mlambo, p. 179). Till to date the ZANU-PF has won every single election by force. MugabeÃ¢â¬â¢s policies of throwing out the white farmers and forcibly occupying lands and giving it to the poor black resulted in economic sanctions by the West and a meltdown of the economy. Owing to his bad economic policies, hyperinflation struck the country and created political space for Morgan Tsvangirai of the Movement for Democratic Change to challenge him in the 2008 elections. The results were rigged but could not conclusively establish TsvangiraiÃ¢â¬â¢s claim of having won the elections. In September 2008, Mugabe maintained his power as the President by agreeing to share power with Tsvangirai who became the Prime Minister (Raftopoulos Mlambo, p. xxxii). Yet again, the single party rule dominates Zimbabwe. Finally, a discussion of Africa would be incomplete without examining its most prosperous and advanced state Ã¢â¬â South Africa. In South Africa, the colonial power, the Dutch did not relinquish their hold over the country and continued in the form of Apartheid, which was once again predicated on the dominance of a single party Ã¢â¬â the White minority party thereby conditioning the people of South Africa to rule by a single party. However, the violent suppression of the minorities could not continue indefinitely and ever since 1961, when South Africa left the British Commonwealth (Berger, 2009, p. 166) the white minority National Party faced constant protest from the black majority for equality. Till 1993, the National Party had banned other political parties (Berger, p. 166) and it was only in the face of sustained international pressure and internal struggle by the black and colored populations that the ban was lifted in 1993 and the African National Congress (ANC) led by Nelson Mandela was allowed to participate in elections. In Mandela, the South Africans found a charismatic leader who exuded the moral authority and statesmanship, which promised to build a future for the suppressed races. Mandela delivered on his promises but also led to consolidation of the ANC as the only party of choice for the people of Africa. The National Party chose to merge with the ANC and this yet again showed the propensity of Africans to prefer single party rule. Conclusion In conclusion, it can be reiterated that analysis of all the regions of Africa shows a remarkable similarity of circumstances that seemed to have shaped their preference for single party rule. The ethnic make up into tribes and clans were at the most basic level, the building blocks for adhering to the instructions of the clan leader or village headman. This obedience in turn was further conditioned by brutal colonial rule, where the colonial masters used every suppressive means to keep the Africans submissive. Suppression and exploitation itself became the rallying point for the African clans to unite and fight for their independence. Since most of the colonial powers only exploited Africa and did not build institutions, the succeeding indigenous governments had no infrastructural back up to employ their people or give immediate succor; naturally, the people fell back to tribal and clan loyalties as rallying forces. Since these points of opposition had to be formed clandestinely, they became sort of secret societies that formed oligarchic groups to fight for independence. On attaining independence the basic dynamics of the groups did not change and they continued as a closed Ã¢â¬Ëin-groupÃ¢â¬â¢, which only heightened social inequalities and strife broke out in most cases. As democratic institutions had not been allowed to mature under the colonial period, people tended to cluster around the Ã¢â¬Ëvillage headmanÃ¢â¬â¢, in other words, any leader with some charisma and since one institution that always has a clearly defined leader is the army, most governments became victims of military takeovers. The populace conditioned by colonial repression now became victims of military repression. Military forces needed a Ã¢â¬Ëdemocratic fig leafÃ¢â¬â¢ to govern nations and so they set up political parties which were then headed by serving or former military officers to perpetrate the rule of a single party in the states. Parts of Africa that had predominantly Islamic influence adopted Islamic laws, which ideologically are not compatible with democratic secularism. Therefore, these countries by default became ruled by a king or a dictator or by a single party. Where the Cold War intruded the African political space, communist regimes under laid by African tribalism became the dominant feature. In these cases, the political ideology required the rule of the state by a single party. Later, when communist regimes fell, the old habit of single party rule lingered on. Thus the assertion that there is prevalence of one party rule in African states is emphatically proved. However, as can be seen from the examples of African states discussed, the hold of one party system is slowly changing. Multiple parties are emerging as the African people are becoming more aware of the wider world through the process of globalization. They are also realizing the need for multiple choices for governance as a panacea against corruption and despotism. So while the one-party prevalence in Africa may seem predominant at the present, political evolution of the African polity is taking place that will, in time transform into a more inclusive political process across the continent. References Amnesty International. (2010). Congo (Republic of). Retrieved August 11, 2010, from http://www. unhcr. org/refworld/country,,,,COG,,4c03a835c,0. html Barker, G. (2008). Sudan. NY: Marshall Cavendish. Berger, I. (2009). South Africa in World History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CIA World Factbook. (2010, August 3). Kenya. Retrieved August 11, 2010, from https://www. cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke. html Forum, A. P. (2008). An Audit of Police Oversight in Africa. Cape Town: African Minds. Kessler, G. (2005, April 27). State Dept. Defends Estimate Of Deaths in Darfur Conflict. Retrieved August 10, 2010, from Washington Post: http://www. washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/04/26/AR2005042601397. html Lewis, I. (2008). Understanding Somalia and Somaliland: Culture, History, Society. NY: Columbia University Press. Lowe, C. , Amara, T. (2009, October 26). Tunisian President Wins Fifth Term in Office. Retrieved August 11, 2010, from Reuters: http://www. reuters. com/article/idUSTRE59P03M20091026 Martin, P. M. , OMeara, P. (1995). Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Moran, M. H. (2008). Liberia: The Violence of Democracy . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. Nossiter, A. (2010, February 9). Nigerian Parliament Names Acting President. Retrieved August 11, 2010, from New York Times: http://www. nytimes. com/2010/02/10/world/africa/10nigeria. html Pateman, R. , El-Hamamsy, S. (2003). Egypt. NY: Marshall Cavendish. Perkins, K. J. (2004). A History of Modern Tunisia . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Polgreen, L. (2005, November 12). In First for Africa, Woman Wins Election as President of Liberia. Retrieved August 10, 2010, from New York Times: http://www. nytimes. com/2005/11/12/international/africa/12liberia. html Raftopoulos, B. , Mlambo, A. (2009). Becoming Zimbabwe: A History from the Pre-Colonial Period to 2008. Harare: Weaver Press. Raghavan, S. (2010, August 6). Kenyans Celebrate Approval of New Constitution. Retrieved August 10, 2010, from The Washington Post: http://www. washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/08/05/AR2010080500525. html Rorison, S. (2008). Congo. Guilford: The Globe Pequot Press Inc. Rotberg, R. I. (2007). Nigeria: Elections and Continuing Challenges. NY: Council for Foreign Relations. Sheehan, S. , Yong, J. L. , Lin, Y. J. (2010). Angola. NY: Marshall Cavendish. Wright, J. (1981). Libya: A Modern History. Beckenham: Croom Helm Ltd.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
In Geoffrey ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s Canterbury Tales, the Wife of BathÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale holds the unique position of being the only tale told by a lay female in the group. The Wife of Bath is a complex character in this, she isn't what she seems to be, and maybe not even what she herself thinks she is. One may at first believe that she represents a feminist character in this, defending the rights and power of women over men in both her prologue and tale. Though The Wife of Bath seems to see herself as a feminist (more or less as a strong independent female of her time), defending the rights and power of women over men in both her prologue the tales actual perspective is formed from the point of view of a man of the time in this, her entire image seems to shift. Notably, it is valid to state that it is highly unlikely that any man of the time period saw her in this same light; rather she seems to illustrate all of the wrongs that men found in women. Alongside this, it is important to emphasiz e that this tale (The Wife of Bath) begins the "Marriage Group" as G.L. Kittredge called it (even though other marriages appear in the Canterbury Tales fragments), involving the Clerk, the Merchant, the Franklin. In this, her spoken goals expressed in her Prologue, express a certain sort of unspoken implication that exerts that Alisoun intends to take the place of the traditionally held authorities on marriage. The Wife attacks medieval dogma and uses aggression as her defense. The primacy of authority over experience is turned upside-down. This in turn produces a cycle of, experience that yields tolerance, allows exceptions, and sees other views. She exemplifies what a perfect example of a "failed feminist," a weak parody of what men see feminists as. In ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s... ... when analyzing, explaining, and understanding The Canterbury Tales, especially Ã¢â¬Å"The Wife of BathÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale.Ã¢â¬ It is important to have an even balance between the feminist critics who view Chaucer as feminist, and the feminist critics who view him as antifeminist when trying to unravel this character as a progressive creation. While it can be argued that the Wife of Bath could be an early feminist character, there are too many aspects to her that indicate how she is working within the system rather than outside of it. Alisoun is not a character who sprung fully formed from her creatorÃ¢â¬â¢s genius. Instead, Alisoun learns how to use what Chaucer initially gives her until she is able to develop her own story, identity, tale, and conclusion. She will forever be a small piece of Geoffrey Chaucer, but she is eternally her own voice that cries out, Ã¢â¬Å"I am Alisoun. I am the Wife.Ã¢â¬
Monday, January 13, 2020
KDA 320 Healthy Interior Environments Content:Introduction.Identity the bing planes, stuffs and objects.Scheme.Solution.Reference List.Part 1: Introduction What is IAQ about? IAQ stands for Indoor Air Quality, which is a term to depict the distinctive feature of an indoor infinite and concern of the major wellness, safety and public assistance about the design of the infinite. Why Indoor Air Quality is of import?Most of our life, we spend the most clip inside a edifice. Harmonizing to GREENGUARD Ã¢â¬Å"Indoor Air is 2 to 5 Timess More Contaminated Than Outdoor AirÃ¢â¬ [ ]As when we are inside a edifice, we are exposing to environmental pollutants when take a breathing indoor air.[ 1 ] What affect Indoor Air Quality? There is some chief facet that cause a hapless indoor air quality such as: Ã¢â¬â Chemicals Ã¢â¬â Mold Ã¢â¬â Particulates Ã¢â¬â Poor Ventilation Inside the procedure of planing a infinite, we need to admonish with the procedure of fabrication and building. Where in this instance the stuff may incorporate and let go of some sums volatile organic compounds ( VOCÃ¢â¬â¢s ) . VOCÃ¢â¬â¢s can be harmful when the chemicals exposed to human being.[ 2 ] VOCÃ¢â¬â¢s normally found in merchandises such as Furniture, Paint, Drywall, Bedding, Paint strippers, Adhesives/glues, Solvents, Upholstery and other fabrics, Carpet, Cleaning merchandises, Copy machine toners, Office supplies, Electronic equipment, Dry-cleaned vesture, Building stuffs.[ 3 ] Formaldehyde, Decane, Butoxyethanol, Isopentane, Limonene, Styrene, Xylenes, Perchloroethylene, Methylene, Chloride, Toluene, Vinyl chloride is some of the common VOCs in places, offices and schools.[ 3 ] What isGREENGUARDCertified Program? Ã¢â¬Å"GREENGUARD Certification is recognized and referenced in legion edifice plans, criterions and specifications around the universe. Merchandises with GREENGUARD Certification or GREENGUARD GoldCertification can lend to the accomplishment of points in established green edifice evaluation systems, satisfy codification or regulation standards and run into indoor air quality specific RFP requirements.Ã¢â¬ [ 4 ] Ã Mentionhypertext transfer protocol: //www.greenguard.org/en/CertificationPrograms.aspxGesimondo & A ; Postell, 2011, Materiality and Interior Construction, Wiley P6-8hypertext transfer protocol: //www.greenguard.org/en/indoorAirQuality/iaq_chemicals.aspxhypertext transfer protocol: //www.greenguard.org/en/CertificationPrograms.aspxPart 2a: Public Space Ã¢â¬â Neil Pitt edifice Hotel Lobby The hotel anteroom takes topographic point at bing Neil Pitt edifice located on Brisbane Street.Length ( m )Height ( m )Surface Area ( m2)Entire Wall and Column60.30m4.2m253.26m2New Built Wall19.05m4.2m80.01m2Display Wall, Partition5.40m4.2m22.68m28.80m1.2m10.56m2Window, Glass Door15.4m4.2m64.68m2EntireÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â431.19m2Surface Area of Wall( High Impact IAQ ) Floor and Ceiling Area( High Impact on IAQ ) Floor Area = 16.05m ten 18.2m = 292.11m2 Ceiling Area = Floor Area Ã¢â¬â Void Area = 292.11m2Ã¢â¬â ( 4.28m x 12.196m ) =239.85m2 Volume of the Space( High Impact on IAQ ) = 18.2m ( L ) x 16.05m ( W ) x 4.2m ( H ) =1226.86m3 From above computation, the surface country of wall has the largest proportion of surface in the country. After subtraction out the divider and window portion, the wall has an country of 333.27m2. Therefore, choice of stuff for this will be most of import as it affect the most IAQ of that country. Floor country that consists of 292.11m2will be the 2nd largest surface within the country. And ceiling will be the last, consists of 239.85m2 The entire volume of this hotel anteroom is around 1226.86m3. For a public infinite like hotel anteroom that is in immense volume, there will be more fondness in airing and humidness of the infinite.Objects:Measure:MaterialCounter1Wood, LaminatePlant14WoodTable7Wood, GlassLighting28Steel, Glass, PlasticSofa4Wood, LeatherChair18Steel, LeatherAir Conditioning4Steel, PlasticOthersÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â( Low Impact on IAQ )( Medium Impact on IAQ )Objects and Material in the Space Age of Material( Medium Impact on IAQ ) For Neil Pitt edifice, most stuff of the edifice is old and some might necessitate to hold retreatment or renovation on the bing stuff. There will be some impact to look on such as the lumber saving ( may utilize of toxic merchandise ) , bing brick and block ( may happen natural radiation ) , metal ( where some repainting demand to be done ) and some old adhesives or sealers might incorporate some dissolvers.[ 5 ] Mention:hypertext transfer protocol: //www.uq.edu.au/ohs/pdfs/pol-indoorair.pdfPart 2b: Private Space Ã¢â¬â Holyman House Double Bedroom The dual sleeping room located at Holyman House in Brisbane Street. This hotel room merely a little sleeping room with a dual bed plus a cabinet filled with fabric hanging, Television cabinet and besides workspaces.Length ( m )Height ( m )Surface Area ( m2)Wall15.05m3.76m56.69m2Window2.38m1.45m3.45m2Entire Wall Ã¢â¬â WindowÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â53.24m2Surface Area of Wall( High Impact IAQ ) Floor and Ceiling Area( High Impact on IAQ ) = 4.44m ten 3.083m Ã¢â¬â 1.471m x 0.996m = 13.69m2Ã¢â¬â 1.47m2 =12.27m2( both floor and ceiling ) Volume of the Space( High Impact on IAQ ) = [ 2.969m x 3.083m + 2.087m ten 1.471m ] x 4.2m =45.96m3 For this sleeping room, the wall besides occupied the most surface country with the entire wall size of 53.24m2. The Floor and ceiling occupied the 2nd with 12.27m2each. As for the room volume, this room has a little volume of 45.96m3. Comparison with the public infinite Hotel Lobby, this smaller infinite IAQ will better as got direct entree to the window which provide natural airing. Objects and Material in the SpaceObjects:Measure:MaterialBed1Wood, FabricCabinet3LaminateLighting6Steel, GlassChair1Steel, LeatherTelevision1Steel, Glass, PlasticOthersÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â( Low Impact on IAQ )( Medium Impact on IAQ )Age of Material( Medium Impact on IAQ ) Similar with Neil Pitt edifice, Holyman house most stuff is old and some might necessitate to hold retreatment or renovation on the bing stuff. Part 2c: Extra FactorVentilationVentilation is a procedure where air altering through an gap in the infinite. Hausladen & A ; Tichelmann reference in their book that: Ã¢â¬Å"Natural airing is a agency of accomplishing a direct exchange between internal and external air through Windowss or dedicated airing louvres or flaps.Ã¢â¬ [ 6 ] For the Hotel Lobby country, the natural airing is non every bit good as the infinite is deficiency of opening such as window. It merely has a chief door entryway. Therefore for the anteroom country, mechanical airing will be needed. Holyman house sleeping room airing is better where they have own window and the size of the window is suited for the volume of the room. Figure 1[ 7 ]HumidityHumidity is the measure of H2O vapour in the ambiance. In cold topographic points illustration when winter, the humidness is low and for Tasmania, the temperature is cold, hence humidness is easier to command. To forestall grew of cast, humidness must non over the per centum of 70 % . There are several ways that can command humidness inside a room such as airing, temperature control and besides dehumidification.[ 8 ]External AirThere is some common facet between external air and natural airing. As being reference above, Hotel lobby country is harder to acquire external air due to the location and deficiency of gap that expose the infinite to outside air. Mention:Hausladen & A ; Tichelmann, 2010, Interiors Construction Manual: Integrated planning, Finishes and Fittingout, Techncal Services, DETAIL, Birkhauser P174-175Hausladen & A ; Tichelmann, 2010, Interiors Construction Manual: Integrated planning, Finishes and Fittingout, Techncal Services, DETAIL, Birkhauser P174-175Godish, Thad, c1989, Indoor air pollution control. Chelsea, Mich. : Lewis Publishers P167-168Part 3: Indoor Air Quality Strategy As the undertaking is take portion at old edifice, get downing by analyzing the factor of the bing edifice. From the edifice, the chief nucleus stuff will be brick work and concrete. Brick work effects on Indoor Air QualityThey may happen some natural radiation.But this radiation merely to be found low in scope of merchandise.ConcreteConcrete besides may incorporate natural radiationTimberPreservation of lumber might incorporate of toxic merchandise.As this three chief stuff will be found in the bing edifice which still need to be maintain and canÃ¢â¬â¢t be replace, I will travel to the following measure of aiming the care plan and remotion facet. The ground of this scheme is because a care of hotel is non easy when clean up, moreover this spread hotel is located individually. For the remotion facet is consider about after few old ages, the hotel might travel through for new redevelopment, repackaging the hotel. Using this, the stuff will be analysis to fit the scheme that traveling to be usage. The three primary surface stuffs will be floor, wall and ceiling. Material Selection Ã¢â¬â Floor Ceramic floor tiles: Portland cement- based will non breathe any VOCs and/or the growing of harmful allergens. Rug: will be host for dust touchs and cast spores. VOCs found to be emit from the dissolvers, latex backup or the adhesives use in the merchandise installing. Cork: may incorporate vinyl and methanal Linoleum: natural stuff, but some systems contain off-gassing. Some person may sensitivity with the linseed oil. Rubber flooring: disinfectant, but minimum off-gassing opportunities. Vinyl flooring: stuff that is component beginnings of VOCs. Wood flooring: maintainance such as varnishes, discolorations will give off big sums of VOCs.[ 9 ] Stone flooring: hard opposition, broad scope of coatings. Example of rock: Granite, Marble, Travertine.[ 10 ] Mention:Gesimondo & A ; Postell, 2011, Materiality and Interior Construction, Wiley P54-55Gesimondo & A ; Postell, 2011, Materiality and Interior Construction, Wiley P149-151Material Selection Ã¢â¬â Ceiling Acoustic Ceiling tiles: hold wet control, or wet balance. Some low denseness mineral fiber ceiling can absorb wet and humidness. Largely Low or no VOCs. Recyclable, renewable stuffs. Easy care. Ceramic tile: fireproof, similar with floor ceramic tiles, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t commit VOCs. Low care, odorless. Concrete Ceiling: non see as green stuff, can be recycle. Care may necessitate sealer that might incorporate VOCs. Pressure might do cleft. Gypsum Board: lasting and can organize different form. Susceptible to H2O and wet harm and cause growing of cast. Metallic element Ceiling: Durable. Plaster Ceiling: non wholly environmental sustainable. However they will non breathe VOCs. Absorbs wet. May cleft after sometime. Excessive wet can damage it.[ 11 ] Mention:Gesimondo & A ; Postell, 2011, Materiality and Interior Construction, Wiley P294-320Material Selection Ã¢â¬â Wall Bead Board: meets the standards of GREENGUARD about the chemical emanations. Contain PVC that is beginning of VOCs. Durable and easy to keep. Brick Masonry: low care and lasting. Good for reuse and recycle. Some brick might be porous such as painting brick. Cement fibreboard: strong and immune to fire, insect and decay. But receive discoloration and will bit. No care required, wet fabric rub for cleansing. Ceramic tiles: similar to floor and ceiling ceramic tile. Easy to keep and lasting. Concrete: similar with concrete ceiling. Glass/ Glazing: transparent, translucent or with opaque stuff. High fire resistant. Installation have sequence for panel parts. Gypsum drywall: similar to gypsum ceiling.[ 12 ] Mention:Gesimondo & A ; Postell, 2011, Materiality and Interior Construction, Wiley P203-283Part 4: Solution to make a better Indoor Air QualityShocking for Hotel LobbyFor the Hotel Lobby, after gone through some list of stuff, rock type shocking which this suite my scheme demand of easy care and remotion facet. Rock flooring is easy to keep and did non incorporate of VOCs in the installing or remotion. There is a disadvantage where rock shocking pricing is rather high comparison to other flooring. The stuff is alone because its nature signifiers of texture. Travertine Stone Floor[ 13 ]Shocking for Hotel RoomsFor the suites, rug will be use although it is harder to clean. The rug supplier that to take will be their stuff is free emanation of VOCs and eco-friendly carpet pad. This is because of rug care is lower comparison to wood flooring, merely cleaning portion will be harder. Carpet besides can do the room experience warmer comparison to the rock flooring that being take to utilize at hotel anteroom. Nylon Rugs[ 14 ] Mention:hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ecostonefloors.com.au/hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ec-group.com.au/ ? view=featuredCeiling for both Hotel Lobby and RoomsAcoustic Ceiling tiles have been choose to be the ceiling stuff because of the non VOCs. It is besides easy to keep and clean. Other than that, acoustic ceiling supply some acoustic demand for the infinite which is an excess benefit other than the indoor air quality. Acoustic Ceiling[ 15 ]Wall for both Hotel Lobby and RoomsBrick masonry wall will be used as for the lasting and easy care scheme. The covering of the wall will be plastered and painted with GREENGUARD certified pigment. There will besides some glass wall at the hotel anteroom to supply natural sunshine into the infinite. Mention:hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gyprock.com.au/Part 5: Mention List Books:Hausladen & A ; Tichelmann, 2010, Interiors Construction Manual: Integrated planning, Finishes and Fittingout, Techncal Services, DETAIL, BirkhauserGesimondo & A ; Postell, 2011, Materiality and Interior Construction, WileyGodish, Thad, c1989, Indoor air pollution control. Chelsea, Mich. : Lewis PublishersBearg, David W. , c1993, Indoor air quality and HVAC systems. Boca Raton, Fla. : Lewis PublishersConran, T. , 2009, Eco House Book, Conran OctopusSusan, M. , 2012, Sustainable Design for Interior Environments, Bloomsbury Acad & A ; ProfWeb site:hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aerias.org/hospitalityhypertext transfer protocol: //www.isiaq.org/hypertext transfer protocol: //www.greenguard.org/en/CertificationPrograms.aspxhypertext transfer protocol: //www.ecostonefloors.com.au/hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ec-group.com.au/ ? view=featuredhypertext transfer protocol: //www.gyprock.com.au/
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Another moral theory, also born of Deontological Perspectives, comes from WD Ross. In contrast to Kant, who stated that moral positions can be deduced by reason and are absolutely binding, Ross believes that we determine moral positions through intuition of the rightness or wrongness on the action. This intuition allows us to determine what our duties are while these duties are not dependent on the outcomes or circumstances, but how we rank these duties is dependent on a situation. In turn, this creates what Ross refers to as Prima Facie duties. Prima Facie duties are duties that are obligatory duties that can be trumped by other duties depending on our situation. Ross gives an example of seven of these prima facie duties in his writings: beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, self-improvement, fidelity, reparation, and gratitude. These duties arise because we intuit them to be true and binding duties. 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Friday, December 27, 2019
Introduction to conflict The term conflict referred to perceived incompatible differenced resulting in some form of interference or opposition. Conflict is a natural part of organizational life because the goals between mangers and workers are often incompatible. If people perceive that differences exist then conflict state exists. Conflict is not exists between individual only, it also can exist between departments and divisions that compete for resources or even because of overlapped authority. However, conflict is a force that needed to be managed or to be resolved but can not be eliminated. Unless is fully resolved, it may remain latent in the situation as a lingering basis for future conflicts over or related to a same matter.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The sources of Conflict The sources of conflict can be basically separated into three categories which are communication differences, structural differences and personal differences. Communication differences mean the failure of two individuals to share fully the meaning of a communicative attempt. It is arises from semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and noise in communication channels. There maybe disagreements caused by different role requirement, unit goals, personalities, value systems or other factors. Since in an organization, people and tasks are divided into departments to accomplish an organizationÃ ¡Ã ¦s goals, departments may only concern on their own department efficiency and cost controlling. Therefore, they have incompatible goals and time horizons, as a result there can be conflict. For example, a production department may have there own production plan to produce a product and avoid paying production workers overtime in order to cut down costs. However, the Marketing department thinks that it is important to deliver the product to their customer on time and paying overtime to workers is a kind of responsibility to their customers. 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Though the aforementioned services and research are ofRead MoreConflict Management5778 Words Ã |Ã 24 PagesUnderstanding Conflict and Conflict Management http://www.foundationcoalition.org/teams Definition A team is a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.1 Although student teams may not satisfy all the requirements of the definition, the degree to which they do often determines their effectiveness. Rationale Students do not come to school with all the social skillsRead MoreConflict Between Conflict Management And Resolution883 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnegative association with conflict. Reflects poorly on the supervisor when there is conflict but in reality itÃ¢â¬â¢s only negative when the supervisor or employee, depending on the situation does not address the conflict. Unresolved conflicts can negatively impact not only the employees involved but also the company. Unresolved conflicts result in negative impacts not only to the individual but also the company. Focus on the problem, not the person. Sometimes the conflict will be reoccurring or unresolvableRead MoreConflict Management Styles1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesConflict Management Styles Myron Harris 09/30/2012 CJA/444 Allen Cole Conflict Management Styles Conflict usually occurs when individuals within a group or organization has differences in opinions. When individuals are in a disagreement about something like policies and procedures or even the overall direction of which an organization or company is heading it can become very frustrating. As we all know conflict the process of conflict usually begins when an individual or party has perceived